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2008, Vol 3 No 1, Article 22

 

Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infestation in Equines of Kashmir Valley

B. A. Pandit*, R. A. Shahardar and L. Jeyabal


Division of Veterinary Parasitology
Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry
S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Kashmir
Post Box No. 135, G. P. O. Srinagar

(e-mail: basharat.pandit@gmail.com)

 

  Department of Veterinary Parasitology,
NTR College of Veterinary Sciences,
Gannavaram, AP


ABSTRACT

A study of parasitic infestations in equines under unorganized husbandry practices was carried out in Kashmir valley of Jammu & Kashmir state by faecal samples examination. The overall infestation was found as high as 93.26%. Trichonema sp. (96.78%) dominated other types of parasites, Strongylus sp. (81.19%), Triodontophorus sp. (41.39%), Dictyocaulus sp. (14.10%), Oxyuris sp. (9.40%), Paranoplocephala sp. (8.14%), Strongyloides sp. (6.19%), Parascaris sp. (4.01%), Amphistome sp. (0.91%) and Eimeria sp. (0.34%) were also recorded.

KEY WORDS

Equines, Helminths, Kashmir

INTRODUCTION

Equines as a means of transport for men and material provide livelihood to a large number of rural and semi-urban populace of Kashmir. Horses do suffer from a number of diseases. Parasitic infestation is a major cause of illness. Documentation of parasitic infestation of horses in Kashmir valley is lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to identify and assess their prevalence.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Faecal samples from 935 equines were examined to identify gastrointestinal parasites. For identification of larval stages the samples were subjected to both sedimentation and floatation techniques (Soulsby, 1982). Third stage larval Strongyle species were identified after incubation of the pooled positive samples at 25-28° C (1°) for ten days as per the procedure described by Soulsby (1965) and Anonymous (1971). The seasonal prevalence of various parasites was then calculated.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

A total of 935 faecal samples were collected from equines of Kashmir valley, a total of 872 (93.26%) were found to harbour various types of gastro-intestinal parasites. horse parasiteMost of the horses were having more than one type of parasitic infestation simultaneously. The results obtained in the present study during different months and seasons are depicted in Table 1.
Overall infestation with Trichonema sp. (96.78%) was most common followed by Strongylus sp. (81.19%), Triodontophorus sp. (41.39%), Dictyocaulus sp. (14.10%), Oxyuris sp. (9.40%) and Parascaris sp. (4.01%). Among Strongylus sp. (81.19%), S. edentatus and S. equinus were the species identified on the basis of coproculture. Only one cestode Paranoplocephala sp. (8.14%) and one trematode Paramphistomum sp. (0.91%) were recorded in the present study. Eimerian oocysts present in 0.34% samples belonged to a single specie i. e. E. lukharti .
Sengupta and Yadav (1997) have observed high prevalence Strongylus endentatus, S. equines and Triodontophorus in the equines of Tarai region of UP. The prevalence of these parasites in our study is also high. In the present study only one type of cestode  Paranoplocephala sp. was recorded, however, Aydenizoz (2004) has identified two genera of equine cestodes; Anoplocephala and Paranoplocephala from horses of Kirikkale, Turkey. The trematode identified in the present study is similar to the one identified by Sengupta and Yadav (2001).
The only species of Eimeria identified as E. leukharti was in accordance with the specifications mentioned by Bhatia (2000).

CONCLUSION


High prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in equines of Kashmir is evident from this study. It is therefore recommended that broad spectrum anthelmintic drugs must be given to the horses on mass campaign basis. The dosing schedule should be followed as per seasonal prevalence and parasitic load. Four dosings per year should also include an anti cestodal drug.

REFERENCES

  1. Anonymous, 1971. Manual of Veterinary Parasitological Laboratory Techniques. Technical Bulletin No. 18, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Her Majesty Stationary Office, London pp 1-131.

  2. Bhatia, B. B., 2000. Text book of Veterinary Protozoology. ICAR Publication, New Delhi.

  3. Aydenizoz, M., 2004. The prevalence of helminthes in horses in Kirikkale, Turkey. Indian Vet. J., 81: 255-258

  4. Sengupta, P. P. and Yadav, M. P., 1997. Occurrence of parasitic infections in ponies of tarai region, Utter Pradesh, India. J.Anim. Sci., 67: 460-462.

  5. Sengupta, P. P. and Yadav, M. P. ,2001. Parasitic infections in equines in Bikaner area of Rajasthan. J. Vet. Parasitol., 15(2): 163-164.

  6. Soulsby, E. J. L., 1965. Text book of Veterinary Clinical Parasitology. Vol. 1. Helminths. Blackwell Scientific Publications Oxford, pp 1-1120.

  7. Soulsby, E. J. L., 1982. Helminths, Arthropodes and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals. 7th Edn. The English Language Book Society, Bailliere, Tindall, London.

 

Table 1

Month & season

Samples examined

Samples +ve

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

December

46

43

41

38

22

-

7

-

-

2

-

-

January

60

40

40

40

15

-

6

-

-

2

-

-

February

46

39

31

16

19

-

7

-

5

4

-

-

Winter

 

152

122

(80.26)

112

(91.80)

94

(77.04)

56

(45.90)

-

20

(16.39)

-

5

(4.09)

8

(6.55)

-

-

March

80

80

80

80

60

2

17

20

40

15

3

-

April

78

78

74

60

48

6

4

18

2

4

4

3

May

60

60

60

60

-

7

21

6

-

17

1

-

Spring

 

218

218

(100)

214

(98.16)

200

(91.73)

108

(49.54)

15

(6.88)

42

(19.26)

44

(20.18)

42

(19.26)

36

(16.51)

8

(3.66)

3

(1.37)

June

109

94

92

58

23

13

15

-

10

10

-

-

July

178

164

163

106

20

6

16

3

3

1

-

-

August

81

77

74

68

37

1

20

1

-

4

-

-

Summer

 

368

335

(91.03)

329

(98.20)

232

(69.25)

80

(23.88)

20

(5.97)

51

(15.22)

4

(1.19)

13

(3.88)

15

(4.47)

-

-

September

76

76

76

65

18

-

-

2

-

2

-

-

October

63

63

57

63

45

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

November

58

58

56

54

54

-

10

4

22

10

-

-

Autumn

 

197

197

(100)

189

(95.93)

182

(92.38)

117

(59.39)

-

10

(5.07)

6

(3.04)

22

(11.16)

12

(6.09)

-

-

Overall

 

935

872

(93.26)

844

(96.78)

708

(81.19)

361

(41.39)

35

(4.01)

123

(14.10)

54

(6.19)

82

(9.40)

71

(8.14)

8

(0.91)

3

(0.34)

Figures in parenthesis represent positive percentage

Legend: A=Trichonema, B=Strongylus, C=Triodontophorus, D=Parascaris, E=Dictyocaulus, F=Strongyloide, G=Oxyuris, H=Paranoplocephala, I=Paramphistomum, J=Eimeria

 


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