2007, Vol 2 No 1, Article 11
Bacterial Isolation and Drug Sensitivity Pattern of
Bovine Mastitis in Kashmir
M. H. Tarfarosh1, S. G. J. Qadri2, A. M. Qurashi3
Institute of Animal Health & Biological Products, Zakura
1Research Assistant, 2Assistant Parasitology, 3Joint Director
A retrospective analysis of the bovine milk samples screened for causative agents of mastitis at the Institute of Animal Health and Biological Products, Zakura from the year 1997 to 2003 was undertaken. Four hundred and thirty five bovine milk samples received over a period of six years from various places of the Kashmir valley were subjected to bacterial isolation and antibiotic sensitivity. Staphylococci were present in 72% to 76.3%, Streptococci in 12.5% to 14% and mixed infection in 9.7% to 11.2% of the samples tested. The periodic prevalence of Staphylococcal and Streptococcal mastitis and shift in the antibiograms of isolates over the period of these six years was recorded.
Mastitis is the most important disease of
high yielding dairy cows. Economic loss to the poor farmers due to loss
of milk during current and future lactations is enormous. Wide range of
microbes responsible for the disease contribute differently in various
climatic zones and managemental practices. The sensitivity pattern of
different bacteria to antibiotics also changes over a period of time.
The samples collected / received from the field , were subjected to cultural examination using standard laboratory procedures of inoculating the samples in nutrient broth overnight and then transferring to solid media i.e. nutrient agar, blood agar, differential agar, strepto-staphylococcal agar (Hi-media). The isolated colonies were studied for the staining character, morphology and hemolytic activity. Selected isolates were then studied for bio-chemical characteristics and identified as Staphylococci or Streptococci as per the Bergey’s Manual for Determinative Bacteriology. The antibiotic disks used in the sensitivity studies are given in Table 1.
Antibiotics used in the study and their concentrations
Staphylococcus and Streptococcus isolates were grown in
separate nutrient broths and aseptically streaked on sterile
nutrient agar plates. The antibiotic
discs were placed five minutes later selectively with the help of an antibiotic disc
dispenser in a clockwise direction. The charged plates were
incubated overnight at 37ş C by keeping
the plates in an inverted
position. (Kirby et al, 1966).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
analysis was conducted from the years 1997-98 to 2002-03 (six years) wherein the cases of
milk samples tested were 56, 100, 80, 71, 56 and 72 respectively.
Throughout the study period Staphylococcus was the major bacterial species associated with bovine mastitis followed by streptococci. These two organism thrive in abundance in the vicinity of the animals particularly under poor managemental practices.
The prevalence of Staphylococcal species in causing bovine mastitis was found to be 73%, 72.2%, 72.5%, 73.2%, 73% and 73% in the year 1997-98, 1998-99, 1999-2000, 2000-2001, 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 respectively, which is in agreement with earlier reports of Kalorey et al (1984), Singh et al, (1994) and Tarfarosh, (1996).
Similarly the prevalence of Streptococci was recorded in bovine mastitis as 12%, 13%, 13.7%, 14%, 12.5% and 13.8% in the year 1997-98, 1998-99, 1999-2000, 2000-2001, 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 respectively which is in conformity with the reports of Saini et al, (1994) and Tarfarosh, (1996).
The incidence of mixed infection was recorded as 10.7%, 10%, 11.2%,
11.2%, 10.7% and 9.7% in the year 1997-98, 1998-99. 1999-2000,
2000-2001, 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 respectively which falls in line with the
observations of Konte et al, (1988), Kapur and Singh, (1980) and Tarfarosh, (1996).
The results of
sensitivity test are presented in Tables 3 and 4.
Drugs of choice as per the Tables 3 and Table 4 appear to be Chloramphenicol, Gentamicin
and Ciprofloxacin which fall in line with
the works conducted by Babu et al (1980) Singh and Baxi (1983)
Rehman and Boro (1991) Singh et al (1994) and Tarfarosh (1996 )
Distribution of causative agents in the bovine milk samples
Year-wise Use of antibiotics and sensitivity patterns
Periodic changes in resistance pattern
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